India’s ambitious space mission to the Lunar South Pole, the Chandrayaan-2,
was anchored to be launched on 15 July 2019 at 2:51 IST (14 July 2019 21:21 UTC). But due to technical glitches, the launch was rescheduled to 22nd July. The mission will
deliver India headway into finding more about our radiant neighbor, thereby
extending the country’s footprint in space.
With the Chandrayaan-2 mission, India
is attempting to become the fourth country after the Soviet Union, US, and
China who have already originated their lunar missions. ISRO Chairman K Sivan
announced that Chanrayaan-2 will be launched on 22 July 2019 at 2.43
PM IST and it will dock on
South Pole of Moon by 7 September. Chandrayaan 2 took off aboard the most
stalwart GSLV-Mk-III rocket called ‘Baahubali’. The preparation for the
lift-off started at 6:43 pm on Sunday and it eventually ended with the rocket flying
into the skies, bearing a “billion dreams” with it. On July 15, the launch was
called off at
T minus 56 minutes and 24 seconds before the
programmed blast off at 1.55 am from the spaceport in Sriharikota following a
mechanical problem in the rocket.
This mission, called Chandrayaan 2, has three major parts — the Orbiter, the Lander Vikram and Rover
Pragyan. The Orbiter and the Lander will be tucked into the GSLV
Mk-III rocket, which will cast them at the moon. After the rocket enters space,
the fairing i.e. the topmost portion of the rocket, departs and releases its
payload. The orbiter-lander module will convey a series of five complex
maneuvers around the Earth to mount momentum and slingshot itself closer to the
moon. When the duo are apprehended by the moon’s orbit, the lander will
disconnect itself from the orbiter to do a soft landing on the moon and will
then deliver the rover onto the lunar surface.
Two of the devices are similar to those on Chandrayaan 1 – the
Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) and the Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar
(Mini SAR). The Mini SAR device on Chandrayaan 1 was generated by NASA and it
ran in only S-band frequencies with Hybrid Polarimetry. However, the
dual-frequency SAR device produced by India can concurrently map the facade in
both L- & S-band frequencies with complete polarimetric capabilities. The
TMC-2 will outline the lunar surface and serve to prepare 3D maps of it. The
SAR will also outline the surface while examining the water-ice in the South
Pole and width of the lunar dust on the surface.
“We aim to enhance our understanding of the Moon, which could lead to findings that will help India and humanity as a whole. These insights and encounters will cause a standard shift in how lunar expeditions are proposed for years to come, driving further journeys into the farthest verges,” ISRO said in a report about the mission.
Some of the technological hurdles of this mission are:
According to the specialists, lunar South Pole is very
interesting as this lunar surface area always resides in shadow. It is also
considered as much larger than that at the North Pole. Probability of the
presence of water is very high in that part of the moon which is also called
shadowed regions. Also, the South Pole region has craters that are cold nets
and hold a fossil record of the early Solar System.
The total cost of the Chandrayaan-2 mission is about Rs 978
crore. The total price is including Rs 603 crore for the orbiter, lander,
rover, flying and ground support system and Rs 375 crore for the big rocket –
Geo-stationary Satellite Launch Vehicle with an innate cryogenic engine.
The title Chandrayaan means Moon Craft in early Sanskrit,
according to NASA. The Chandrayaan-1 spaceship was based on an Indian
meteorological spacecraft called Kalpansat. It was about the size of a fridge,
with a dry weight of about 525 kilograms (1,160 lbs.) and was powered by a
solar pattern that charged lithium-ion batteries on board.
Chandrayaan-1 took off on
Oct. 22, 2008, from the Satish Dhawan Space
Center in Sriharikota, India, aboard a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
spacecraft, according to NASA. It touched the moon on Nov. 8, 2008. The rocket
delivered its Moon Impact Probe on Nov. 14, which dropped into the moon on the
The rocket initially conducted its work from a mapping
orbit at an elevation of 100 kilometers (62 miles), ISRO said. In May
2009, controllers boosted the orbit to 200 km (124 miles). Chandrayaan-1 made
3,400 orbits of the moon and proceeded to transmit data until Aug. 29, 2009,
when controllers permanently lost contact with the rocket.
Chandrayaan-1 key achievements
found evidence of water on the moon-a path-breaking innovation in the world of
space art. Chandrayaan-1 also found water ice in the North polar area of the
Moon. It also discovered Magnesium, Aluminium, and Silicon on the lunar cover.
Global imaging of the moon is a different accomplishment of this mission.
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